中国科学院机构知识库网格
Chinese Academy of Sciences Institutional Repositories Grid
First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. II. Array and Instrumentation

文献类型:期刊论文

AuthorAkiyama,Kazunori1,2,3,4; Alberdi,Antxon5; Alef,Walter6; Asada,Keiichi7; Azulay,Rebecca6,8,9; Baczko,Anne-Kathrin6; Ball,David10; Balokovi?,Mislav4,11; Barrett,John2; Bintley,Dan12
SourceASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS
Issued Date2019-04-10
Volume875Issue:1Pages:28
ISSN2041-8205
Keywordblack hole physics galaxies: individual (M87) Galaxy: center gravitational lensing: strong instrumentation: interferometers techniques: high angular resolution
DOI10.3847/2041-8213/ab0c96
Rank第67完成单位
SubtypeArticle
English Abstract

The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) array that comprises millimeter- and submillimeter-wavelength telescopes separated by distances comparable to the diameter of the Earth. At a nominal operating wavelength of similar to 1.3 mm, EHT angular resolution (lambda/D) is similar to 25 mu as, which is sufficient to resolve nearby supermassive black hole candidates on spatial and temporal scales that correspond to their event horizons. With this capability, the EHT scientific goals are to probe general relativistic effects in the strong-field regime and to study accretion and relativistic jet formation near the black hole boundary. In this Letter we describe the system design of the EHT, detail the technology and instrumentation that enable observations, and provide measures of its performance. Meeting the EHT science objectives has required several key developments that have facilitated the robust extension of the VLBI technique to EHT observing wavelengths and the production of instrumentation that can be deployed on a heterogeneous array of existing telescopes and facilities. To meet sensitivity requirements, high-bandwidth digital systems were developed that process data at rates of 64. gigabit s(-1), exceeding those of currently operating cm-wavelength VLBI arrays by more than an order of magnitude. Associated improvements include the development of phasing systems at array facilities, new receiver installation at several sites, and the deployment of hydrogen maser frequency standards to ensure coherent data capture across the array. These efforts led to the coordination and execution of the first Global EHT observations in 2017 April, and to event-horizon-scale imaging of the supermassive black hole candidate in M87.

Subject天文学 ; 天体物理学 ; 高能天体物理学 ; 实测天体物理学 ; 星系与宇宙学 ; 星系天文学 ; 天文学其他学科
URL查看原文
Publish PlaceTEMPLE CIRCUS, TEMPLE WAY, BRISTOL BS1 6BE, ENGLAND
WOS KeywordSGR-A-ASTERISK ; SUPERMASSIVE BLACK-HOLE ; MAGNETIC-FIELD STRUCTURE ; GHZ VLBI OBSERVATIONS ; COHERENCE LIMITS ; INTRINSIC SIZE ; PICO-VELETA ; RADIO ; ACCRETION ; PARAMETERS
Funding ProjectAcademy of Finland[274477] ; Academy of Finland[284495] ; Academy of Finland[312496] ; European Commission Framework Programme Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation action[731016] ; Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University through John Templeton Foundation[60477] ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile)[PIA ACT172033] ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile)[Fondecyt 1171506] ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile)[BASAL AFB-170002] ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile)[ALMA-conicyt 31140007] ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico)[104497] ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico)[275201] ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico)[279006] ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico)[281692] ; Direccion General de Asuntos de l Personal Academico-Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (DGAPA-UNAM)[IN112417] ; European Research Council Synergy Grant "BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes"[610058] ; Generalitat Valenciana postdoctoral grant[APOSTD/2018/177] ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation[GBMF 947] ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation[GBMF-3561] ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation[GBMF-5278] ; Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho: MEXT) Scholarship ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)[JP17J08829] ; JSPS Overseas Research Fellowships ; Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)[QYZDJ-SSW-SLH057] ; Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)[QYZDJ-SSW-SYS008] ; Leverhulme Trust Early Career Research Fellowship ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[18KK0090] ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[JP18K13594] ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[JP18K03656] ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[JP18H03721] ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[18K03709] ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[18H01245] ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[25120007] ; MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[105-2112-M-001-025-MY3] ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[106-2112-M-001-011] ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[106-2119-M-001-027] ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[107-2119-M-001-017] ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[107-2119-M-001-020] ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[107-2119-M-110-005] ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, Fermi Guest Investigator grant)[80NSSC17K0649] ; National Key Research and Development Program of China[2016YFA0400704] ; National Key Research and Development Program of China[2016YFA0400702] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0096454] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0352953] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0521233] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0705062] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0905844] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0922984] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1126433] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1140030] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[DGE-1144085] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1207704] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1207730] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1207752] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[MRI-1228509] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[OPP-1248097] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1310896] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11573051] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11633006] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11650110427] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[10625314] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11721303] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11725312] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11873028] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11873073] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[U1531245] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11473010] ; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) ; National Research Foundation of Korea[2015-R1D1A1A01056807] ; National Research Foundation of Korea[NRF-2015H1A2A1033752] ; National Research Foundation of Korea[NRF-2015H1D3A1066561] ; Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award[639.043.513] ; Spinoza Prize[SPI 78-409] ; Swedish Research Council[2017-00648] ; Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada ; Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Economic Development, Job Creation and Trade ; Russian Science Foundation[17-12-01029] ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad[AYA2015-63939-C2-1-P] ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad[AYA2016-80889-P] ; US Department of Energy (USDOE) through the Los Alamos National Laboratory[89233218CNA000001] ; Italian Ministero dell'Istruzione Universita e Ricerca through the grant Progetti Premiali 2012-iALMA[CUP C52I13000140001] ; European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme[730562 RadioNet] ; ALMA North America Development Fund Chandra[TM6-17006X] ; NSF[ACI-1548562] ; NSF[DBI-0735191] ; NSF[DBI-1265383] ; NSF[DBI-1743442] ; MOST (Taiwan)[99-2119-M-001-002-MY4] ; MOST (Taiwan)[103-2119-M-001-010-MY2] ; MOST (Taiwan)[106-2119-M-001-013] ; MOST (Taiwan)[106-2923-M-001-005] ; MOST (Taiwan)[107-2923-M-001-002] ; Smithsonian Institution ; CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France) ; MPG(Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Germany) ; Academia Sinica ; National Key R&D Program of China[2017YFA0402700] ; Science and Technologies Facility Council (UK) ; State of Arizona ; NSF ; NSF Physics Frontier Center award[PHY-0114422] ; Kavli Foundation ; GBMF[GBMF-947] ; National Science Foundation[PLR-1248097] ; NSF Physics Frontier Center grant[PHY-1125897] ; Jansky Fellowship program of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) ; South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO), which is a facility of the National Research Foundation (NRF), an agency of the Department of Science and Technology (DST) of South Africa ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the "Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa" award[SEV-2017-0709] ; Academia Sinica (Taiwan) ; IGN (Instituto Geografico, Nacional, Spain) ; Compute Ontario ; Calcul Quebec ; Compute Canada ; CyVerse ; [AST-1312651] ; [AST-1337663] ; [AST-1440254] ; [AST-1555365] ; [AST-1715061] ; [AST-1615796] ; [AST-1614868] ; [AST-1716327] ; [OISE-1743747] ; [AST-1816420]
WOS Research AreaAstronomy & Astrophysics
Language英语
WOS IDWOS:000464210800002
PublisherIOP PUBLISHING LTD
Funding OrganizationAcademy of Finland[274477, 284495, 312496] ; European Commission Framework Programme Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation action[731016] ; Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University through John Templeton Foundation[60477] ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile)[PIA ACT172033, Fondecyt 1171506, BASAL AFB-170002, ALMA-conicyt 31140007] ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico)[104497, 275201, 279006, 281692] ; Direccion General de Asuntos de l Personal Academico-Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (DGAPA-UNAM)[IN112417] ; European Research Council Synergy Grant "BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes"[610058] ; Generalitat Valenciana postdoctoral grant[APOSTD/2018/177] ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation[GBMF 947] ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation[GBMF-3561] ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation[GBMF-5278] ; Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho: MEXT) Scholarship ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)[JP17J08829] ; JSPS Overseas Research Fellowships ; Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)[QYZDJ-SSW-SLH057, QYZDJ-SSW-SYS008] ; Leverhulme Trust Early Career Research Fellowship ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[18KK0090, JP18K13594, JP18K03656, 18K03709, 25120007] ; MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[105-2112-M-001-025-MY3, 106-2112-M-001-011, 106-2119-M-001-027, 107-2119-M-001-017, 107-2119-M-001-020, 107-2119-M-110-005] ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, Fermi Guest Investigator grant)[80NSSC17K0649] ; National Key Research and Development Program of China[2016YFA0400704, 2016YFA0400702] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0096454, AST-0352953, AST-0705062, AST-0905844, AST-0922984, AST-1126433, AST-1140030, DGE-1144085, AST-1207704, AST-1207730, AST-1207752, MRI-1228509, OPP-1248097, AST-1310896] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11573051, 11633006, 11650110427, 10625314, 11721303, 11725312, 11873028, 11873073, U1531245, 11473010] ; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) ; National Research Foundation of Korea[2015-R1D1A1A01056807, NRF-2015H1A2A1033752, NRF-2015H1D3A1066561] ; Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award[639.043.513] ; Spinoza Prize[SPI 78-409] ; Swedish Research Council[2017-00648] ; Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada ; Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Economic Development, Job Creation and Trade ; Russian Science Foundation[17-12-01029] ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad[AYA2015-63939-C2-1-P, AYA2016-80889-P] ; US Department of Energy (USDOE) through the Los Alamos National Laboratory[89233218CNA000001] ; Italian Ministero dell'Istruzione Universita e Ricerca through the grant Progetti Premiali 2012-iALMA[CUP C52I13000140001] ; European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme[730562 RadioNet] ; ALMA North America Development Fund Chandra[TM6-17006X] ; NSF[ACI-1548562, DBI-0735191, DBI-1265383, DBI-1743442] ; MOST (Taiwan)[99-2119-M-001-002-MY4, 103-2119-M-001-010-MY2, 106-2119-M-001-013, 106-2923-M-001-005, 107-2923-M-001-002] ; Smithsonian Institution ; CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France) ; MPG(Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Germany) ; Academia Sinica ; National Key R&D Program of China[2017YFA0402700] ; Science and Technologies Facility Council (UK) ; State of Arizona ; NSF ; NSF Physics Frontier Center award[PHY-0114422] ; Kavli Foundation ; GBMF[GBMF-947] ; National Science Foundation[PLR-1248097] ; NSF Physics Frontier Center grant[PHY-1125897] ; Jansky Fellowship program of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) ; South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO), which is a facility of the National Research Foundation (NRF), an agency of the Department of Science and Technology (DST) of South Africa ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the "Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa" award[SEV-2017-0709] ; Academia Sinica (Taiwan) ; IGN (Instituto Geografico, Nacional, Spain) ; Compute Ontario ; Calcul Quebec ; Compute Canada ; CyVerse ; [AST-1312651] ; [AST-1337663] ; [AST-1440254] ; [AST-1555365] ; [AST-1715061] ; [AST-1615796] ; [AST-1614868] ; [AST-1716327] ; [OISE-1743747] ; [AST-1816420]
源URL[http://ir.ynao.ac.cn/handle/114a53/19714]  
Collection云南天文台_丽江天文观测站(南方基地)
云南天文台_中国科学院天体结构与演化重点实验室
Corresponding AuthorAkiyama,Kazunori
Affiliation1.National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Rd, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA
2.Massachusetts Institute of Technology Haystack Observatory, 99 Millstone Road, Westford, MA 01886, USA
3.National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan
4.Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University, 20 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
5.Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008 Granada, Spain
6.Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn, Germany
7.Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, AS/NTU No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C.
8.Departament d’Astronomia i Astrofísica, Universitat de València, C. Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot, València, Spain
9.Observatori Astronòmic, Universitat de València, C. Catedrático José Beltrán 2, E-46980 Paterna, València, Spain
10.Steward Observatory and Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Akiyama,Kazunori,Alberdi,Antxon,Alef,Walter,et al. First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. II. Array and Instrumentation[J]. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS,2019,875(1):28.
APA Akiyama,Kazunori.,Alberdi,Antxon.,Alef,Walter.,Asada,Keiichi.,Azulay,Rebecca.,...&Ziurys,Lucy.(2019).First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. II. Array and Instrumentation.ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS,875(1),28.
MLA Akiyama,Kazunori,et al."First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. II. Array and Instrumentation".ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS 875.1(2019):28.

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